7577 W. 80th Ave. You must be a subscriber! Cincinnati Reds Visalberghi, E., and Addessi, E. (2000). Seeing group members eating a familiar food enhances the acceptance of novel foods in capuchin monkeys. Anim. Behav. 60, 69–76. doi: 10.1006/anbe.2000.1425
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back to top Social facilitation studies in rhesus macaques are few and far between; only three have been conducted over the last 80 years (Harlow and Yudin, 1933; Stamm, 1961; Ferrari et al., 2005). Two (Harlow and Yudin, 1933; Ferrari et al., 2005) show that macaques eat more in presence of co-eaters than alone (as do humans, Herman, 2015, or capuchin monkeys, Visalberghi and Addessi, 2000; Dindo and de Waal, 2007). The remaining one (Stamm, 1961) provides the proof of concept that the presence of a co-performer also helps macaques when food serves as a reward for a cognitive task rather than being simply made available for consumption (a change recently reported in capuchins as well; Dindo et al., 2009). The aim of the present study was to complete the patchy knowledge of social facilitation in macaques in two ways. First, we wanted to confirm Stamm's early (Stamm, 1961) demonstration of a social facilitation of cognition. Second, we wanted to establish that the present other needs not be a co-performer for the change to occur, and that a simple spectator suffices. To this aim, seven adult rhesus macaques (two dyads and one triad), trained to perform a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to get food rewards, were alternatively tested alone vs. with a familiar companion serving as either a passive spectator or an active co-performer.
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The present coaction effect adds to the rare earlier evidence that macaques (and capuchins) are socially facilitated also when food serves as a reward for a task, rather than being simply made available for consumption (Stamm, 1961; Dindo et al., 2009). The present audience effect provides a convincing example of the mere presence effect in nonhuman animals. In the 1960s, social psychologist Zajonc gave equal weight to human data and nonhuman data from a variety of animals including cockroaches, chickens, or rats, considering that “a social psychology confined to man is as parochial as a chemistry confined to gold” (Rajecki, 2010). Later, however, the capacity of animal studies to arrange (i) a presence condition without social learning of some sort and (ii) a solitary condition that is not a source of stress was called into question (Guerin and Innes, 2009). Here, the “present other” was of no help to solve the task at hand, so social learning (whether cueing, contagion, or imitation) cannot explain the social facilitation effect. A stress-related explanation can also reasonably be ruled out as we compared the cortisol response elicited in the present female triad by the alone vs. the audience condition, and found no difference (Monfardini et al., 2015).
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Colorado veterans want a tax break on state income taxes on retirement benefits. The United Veterans Committee of Colorado (UVC), its members, Colorado’s veterans, and bill sponsors are holding press conference about the benefits of HB18-1060 to Colorado’s retired military and residents. HB18-1060 is THE
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The ecosystems of southern Michigan were worm-free until European settlers introduced them, along with the dandelions, queen-anne’s-lace, and a host of deadly diseases. I don’t know how prevalent earthworms worm before the last ice-age, but there were none left when the final glacier retreated 12 or so thousand years ago. If you think earthworms are […]
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