This is an archival site

For more information

On the development of UNIX, see Dennis M. Ritchie, The Evolution of the Unix Time-sharing System, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974. Copies are available from three sources:

  • The proceedings of the Language Design and Programming Methodology Conference at Sydney, Australia, September 1979, published as "Lecture Notes in Computer Science #79: Language Design and Programming Methodology," Springer-Verlag, 1980
  • Dennis Ritchie, The Evolution of the Unix Time-Sharing System, and
  • AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal, "Computing Science and Systems: The UNIX System," 63 No. 6 Part 2, October 1984, pp. 1577-93. (Not available on the Web)

On the history of UNIX in general, see:

On Dennis Ritchie, see <Dennis Ritchie Home Page>.

On Ken Thompson, see <Ken Thompson>.

On Multics, see <>.

On The Open Group, see <>.

On the Santa Cruz Operation, see <>.

On the history of computing, see the Oxford University's Virtual Museum of Computing

On using UNIX, there are many books available at book stores and libraries, such as:

[ UNIX building blocks ]

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